In America, we have donuts and fritters.
In China, what translates literally to "oil-fried ghosts" is served with congee.
In France, there are beingets, which in the U.S. are associated with New Orleans.
Now in Italy, they take their fried dough seriously. There are countless versions - bombolini and zeppole to name a couple.
As you can see, I can name a few off the top of my head, but I was quite amazed when I came across this Wiki article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_doughnut_varieties
Below, I really love the strawberry jam doughnut picture. It's not often that what you envision comes to life exactly the way you pictured it.
Homemade Strawberry Jam Doughnuts [03.25.2010]